Keeping global average temperature growth below 1.5 degrees Celsius will prevent the worst effects of climate change, scientists say. This is compared to "pre-industrial" times. The world has since warmed 1 ° C.
The original goal of limiting the average global temperature increase. Recent research points at 1.5 degrees are a much safer limit.
The current likely increase in global average temperature by 2100 if countries keep their promises to reduce greenhouse gas emissions leading to climate change.
Predict the likely average temperature increase by 21
An activity that helps to cope with the effects of climate change – e.g.
Foot Stands for Flood Protection, Building Barriers to Retention of Rising Sea Levels or Growing Crops That Can Survive High Temperatures and Drought
"Anthropogenic Global Warming" Stands an increase in temperatures caused by human activities such as burning fossil fuels such as coal and oil. This produces carbon dioxide and other so-called greenhouse gases that trap heat in the atmosphere and cause the planet to warm up. In addition to changes in climatic conditions that occur due to natural processes
The Arctic Ocean freezes in winter and most of it then thaws in the summer and the thawing area increased by 40% compared to several decades. The Arctic region is warming twice as fast as the rest of the planet
Attribute is the process by which scientists try to explain whether climate change has caused a certain weather event – much like heat – more likely. 19659003] Average Temperature
The average temperature in the world is calculated using the readings from weather stations, satellites and ships and buoys at sea. It is currently at 14.9 C.
It is worth "bioenergy with carbon capture and storage". It is the name of a crop-growing system (which draws carbon dioxide from the air) and when it is burnt to generate electricity, carbon emissions are captured and stored. Scientists see that this is a key way to keep the lights on while not adding global warming, but technology is in its infancy.
Fuel from renewable biological resources including crops such as corn, palm oil and cane and some forms of agricultural waste
Biomass is a plant or animal material used for energy production or as a raw material for other products. The simplest example is cow dung; others are compressed wood pellets that are now used in some power plants.
Carbon is a chemical element that is sometimes described as a building block for life on Earth because it is found in most plant and animal lives. It is also found in fuels such as gasoline, coal, and natural gas, and when it is burned it is emitted as a gas called carbon dioxide
Capture and remove carbon dioxide gas from the air. The gas can then be reused or injected into deep underground reservoirs. Carbon capture is sometimes referred to as geological sequestration. Technology is currently in its infancy
Carbon dioxide is a gas in the Earth's atmosphere. It occurs naturally and is also a by-product of human activities such as burning fossil fuels. It is a major greenhouse gas produced by human activity
The amount of carbon emitted by a person or organization over a given period of time or the amount of carbon emitted during production of a product. 19659003] Carbon Neutral
A process where there is no net release of carbon dioxide (CO2). For example, the growing biomass removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while it burns gas again. The process would be carbon neutral if the quantity and the amount released were the same. A company or country can also achieve carbon neutrality by offsetting carbon emissions. The term "zero zero" has the same meaning
Carbon balancing is most commonly used in relation to air transport. It allows passengers to pay extra to help offset their carbon emissions. Money is then invested in environmental projects – such as planting trees or installing solar panels – that reduce carbon dioxide in the air by the same amount. Some activists have criticized carbon compensation as an excuse to continue polluting, arguing that it does little to change behavior
Anything that absorbs more carbon dioxide than emits. Rainforests, oceans and land are the major carbon sinks in nature
Establishes 'Carbon Capture and Use'. It is about using the technology to pump carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and converting it to products such as biofuels and plastics
A pattern of changes affecting the global or regional climate, measured by average temperature and precipitation, and how often extreme weather conditions occur events such as heat or heavy rain. This variation may be due to both natural processes and people. Global warming is an informal term used to describe human-induced climate change
Climate models are computer simulations of the behavior of the atmosphere, oceans, soil, plants, and ice below different levels of greenhouse gases. This helps scientists come up with forecasts of what Earth will continue to do as a global warming. Models do not produce accurate predictions, but instead propose a range of possible outcomes
Climate change negotiations are held annually when the UN brings governments together to discuss climate change mitigation measures. The aim is usually a collective agreement to reduce carbon emissions by certain dates. The last of these is the Paris Agreement of 2015, which sets warming targets to 2 ° C or 1.5 ° C, if possible. Negotiations are always difficult because many countries are heavily dependent on fossil fuels and are worried about the consequences of any change on their economies
CO2 means carbon dioxide, a naturally occurring gas that is also a major human activity product, e.g. burning fossil fuels. Increasing the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere means that more heat is maintained, causing the planet to heat up
Stands for "Conference of Parties". It is the name of the UN's annual climate change negotiations, called the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (see UNFCCC). The aim is to prevent dangerous human intervention in the climate
A UN climate summit took place in Copenhagen in 2009, and it has fallen into disaster and ended with countries that have only agreed to a non-binding agreement that climate change is "one of the biggest challenges present ”. The event is widely regarded as one of the least productive since the beginning of climate negotiations
Coral bleaching refers to the color change of coral reefs when ocean temperature rises above a certain level, forcing corals to eject the algae they normally live with – it makes them white. The coral can recover if the water cools down, but permanent damage can be done if it remains too hot
Forest cleaning to allow farms such as soy crops to feed livestock or palm oil for consumer products. This releases significant amounts of carbon dioxide from the burning of trees
Climate deniers believe that climate change is only taking place because of natural processes and that human activity has no role. They disagree with the work of many thousands of experts around the world, whose research has been reviewed and published and is based on research dating back over a century.
Emissions are any release of gases such as carbon. which causes global warming, the main cause of climate change. They can be small-scale in the form of a car or methane exhaust from a cow, or on a larger scale, such as coal and heavy power plants
Extreme weather is any type of unusual, heavy or unplanned weather. Examples could be large waves of heat, with broken temperature records, widespread droughts, and cold spells and heavier than normal rainfall. Scientists predict that extreme weather will become more common when the world becomes warmer
In a feedback loop, rising temperatures change the environment in a way that affects the warming rate. Feedback loops can increase or decrease the warming rate. When the Arctic Ice melts, the surface changes from a bright reflective white to a darker blue or green, allowing more sun rays to absorb. So less ice means more warming and more melting
Fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas were created when small plants and animals flourished in the distant past, absorbing carbon from the atmosphere before dying and being. crushed millions of years. When burned, they release carbon dioxide
Geo-engineering is any technology that could be used to stop or even reverse climate change. Examples range from getting carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and storing it underground, to more far-reaching ideas, such as placing huge mirrors in space to bounce the sun's rays. Some scientists say that geo-engineering may prove necessary because there is not enough to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Usually a reference to the averaged temperature across the globe
A sustained increase in global average temperature over the past decades experts say it is mostly due to man-made greenhouse gas emissions. The long-term trend continues upwards in 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018, which are the hottest years.
Green energy, sometimes called renewable energy, is produced from natural, renewable sources. Examples are wind and solar energy, as well as biomass made from compressed wood pellets
Natural and human gases that trap heat in the atmosphere and heat the surface. The Kyoto Protocol limits emissions of six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, perfluorocarbons, fluorinated hydrocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride
Gulf Stream is a warm ocean stream that originates from the Gulf of Mexico and flows up to the United East Coast States and across the Atlantic Ocean. Scientists believe that Europe would be substantially colder without it. There is a concern that the current could be disturbed if increasing temperatures melted more polar ice, which would bring fresh water flow
Hydrocarbon is a substance consisting solely of hydrogen and carbon. Major fossil fuels – coal, oil and gas – are hydrocarbons and as such are the main source of climate change related emissions
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is a scientific body set up by the UN. and the World Meteorological Organization. Its role is to explore and evaluate the latest scientific research on climate change. His 2018 report warned that the rise in global temperatures should be limited to 1.5 ° C in order to avoid dangerous impacts
Jetstream is a narrow band of fast-flowing air at high altitudes acting as a major impact on the weather. Current currents could be disturbed by warming in the polar regions, which can cause extreme weather as the hot summer of Europe in 2018.
A set of rules agreed in Kyoto, Japan in 1997, in which 84 developed countries agreed to by reducing its combined emissions by 5.2% of its level in 1990.
A term used to describe people who believe that climate change is real and that it is driven by human activity, but that its effects will not be affected .
Methane is a gas that absorbs approximately 30 times more heat than carbon dioxide. Produced by human activities from agriculture – cows produce large quantities – as well as landfills and coal spills. Methane is also naturally emitted from wetlands, termites and fires. One big concern is that the carbon retained in the frozen soil in the Arctic regions is released as methane when temperatures rise and the soil collapses. This could cause extremely unpredictable global warming
Action to reduce human climate change. This includes reducing greenhouse gas emissions by switching to renewable energy or capturing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere by planting forests
A term used to describe any process where there is no net release of carbon dioxide (CO2). For example, a growing biomass removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while it burns gas again. The process would be zero if the quantity and quantity released were the same. A company or country can also achieve a net zero by offsetting carbon emissions. Zero-value processes or manufactured items are sometimes also referred to as "carbon neutral."
The ocean absorbs about a quarter of human-made carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, helping to reduce the effect of climate change. However, when CO2 is dissolved in seawater, carbonic acid is formed. Carbon emissions from industry have already begun to change the world's ocean chemistry over the last 200 years. If this trend continues, the sea creatures will be harder to build their seashells and skeletal structures and the coral reefs will be killed. This would have serious consequences for people who rely on them as fishing grounds.
The ozone layer is part of a high Earth atmosphere that contains a large concentration of molecules of gases containing three oxygen atoms called ozone. Ozone helps filter out harmful ultraviolet light from the sun, which can increase the risk of skin cancer. In the 1980s and 1990s, industrial gases called chlorofluorocarbons (or CFCs) were banned because they depleted the ozone layer. These gases are also strong greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming
PPM / ppm
Abbreviation for "parts per million", used to denote gas concentrations such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) proposed that the world should focus on stabilizing greenhouse gas levels at 450 ppm CO2 equivalent to avoid dangerous climate change. Some scientists and many of the countries most at risk of climate change claim that the safe upper limit is 350 ppm. Modern levels of CO2 broke 400ppm in 2013 (at the Mauna Loa Laboratory in Hawaii) and continued to climb at about 2 – 3 ppm per year
Scientists use the baseline to compare modern technology. temperature rise on Earth. Often, the baseline is 1850-1900 and global temperatures have since increased by about 1 ° C. The fact is, of course, that the industry has actually gone a lot earlier, but there is a clear increase in CO2 levels in the 1850-1900 atmosphere and other greenhouse gases and the period is therefore considered a useful indicator.
Normally, reference is made to energy sources such as biomass (such as wood and biogas), water stream, geothermal energy (heat from earth), wind and solar energy. 19659002] Describes how climate change can suddenly change after passing a "break point", making it even harder to stop or reverse. In 2018, the IPCC stated that global emissions must be reduced by 45% by 2030 and zero by 2050 to increase the likelihood of limiting the temperature to 1.5 ° C by this century.
ice is found in polar regions. It grows in size and thickness in autumn and winter and drowns in spring and summer. The amount of sea ice in the Arctic is seen as a key indicator of climate trends, as the region is warming faster than most other cities on Earth. The smallest range (in the era of satellites) of the Arctic sea ice was recorded in September 2012. 3.41 million square kilometers was 44% below the average of 1981-2010
Predicted sea levels one of the most drastic consequences of climate change . In this context, there are two main causes of sea level rise: (1) the spread of seawater, as the oceans are warm; and (2) draining water from the molten ice and glaciers into the ocean. The current sea level is on average 20 cm higher than in 1900. Year after year, sea levels are currently rising slightly more than 3 mm
Sustainability means the consumption of planet resources to the extent that they can achieve be added. It is sometimes known as "sustainable development". The types of renewable energy, such as solar or wind, are described as sustainable, while the use of wood from farmed forests where trees are transplanted according to how much is cropped is another example.
Describes how climate can suddenly change after passing a "break point", making it even harder to stop or reverse. Scientists say there is an urgent need for policy makers to halve global carbon dioxide emissions or changes that could be irreversible by 2030.
Establishes the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It is an international treaty signed at the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit in 1992, which states that countries should work to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to avoid dangerous climate change
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