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Beyond Hubble’s Constant – “New Age of the Universe”



Hubble's new deep field

“Eventually we get to the highest limits of our telescopes. We measure shadows and look for scary mistakes in measuring landmarks that are barely more pronounced,”

; wrote Edwin Hubble in 1916, the inventor of the famous “constant”, which describes how fast the universe expands in various distances from a certain point in space, indicating the existence of a time schedule or the age of the universe. A new study by a team of astronomers using a new approach using known distances of 50 galaxies from Earth has estimated the age of the universe to be 12.6 billion years.

Measurements of today’s Hubble finger expansion rate do not match what was expected based on how the universe appeared shortly after the Big Bang more than 13 billion years ago. In 2019, astronomers significantly reduced the possibility that this discrepancy was a coincidence, using new data from NASA’s / ESA’s Hubble Space Telescope.

Spooky bugs

“Hubble’s tension between the early and late universes may be the most amazing development in cosmology in decades,” said Adam Riess, a scientific researcher and Nobel laureate at the Institute for Space Telescopes (STScI) and Johns Hopkins University. “This discrepancy is growing and has now reached a point that is really impossible to dismiss as a butterfly. This difference could not occur by chance. “

Hubble Uncovers Mystery – “New Physics Must Explain the Forces That Shaped the Cosmos”

Current approaches to the Big Bang and the birth of the universe rely on mathematical and computational modeling, using estimates of the distance of the oldest stars, the behavior of galaxies, and the rate of expansion of the universe. The goal is to calculate how long it will take for all objects to return to the beginning.

The latest technique for measuring the age of the universe uses observations of remnants of radiation from the Big Bang, according to the University of Oregon – “It maps bumps and twists in space-time – cosmic microwave background or CMB – and reflects conditions in early space. according to the Hubble constant. “

A new approach

The new approach introduces James Schombert, a professor of physics at the University of Oregon. In a paper published in the Astronomical Journal on July 17, he and his colleagues recalibrate a distance measuring tool known as the Tully-Fisher baryon relationship independently of Hubble’s constant, which solves the “distance problem” as it is known and solves “huge distances from galaxies and pointers. which are weak and difficult to calibrate. “

Hubble’s paradox – “constant in space, not in time”

Schombert’s team recalculated the Tully-Fisher approach using well-defined distances in a linear calculation of 50 galaxies as a guide for measuring the distances of 95 other galaxies. The universe, he noted, rules a series of mathematical formulas expressed in equations. The new approach more closely corresponds to the mass and rotation curves of galaxies to convert these equations into numbers such as age and rate of expansion.

Schombert’s team approach determines the Hubble constant – the rate of expansion of the universe – at a speed of 75.1 km / s per megaparsec, to give or take 2.3. Megaparsec, a common unit of measurement of the universe, is equal to a million parsecs. Parsec is about 3.3 light-years across. His constant values ​​below 70, as written by his team, can be ruled out with 95% certainty.

Traditionally used measurement techniques over the past 50 years, Schombert said, have set the value at 75, but the CMB calculates a rate of 67. The CMB technique should arrive at the same estimate using different assumptions and computer simulations, he said. .

Physics of the Universe Unfinished

“The tension in this area stems from the fact that this is not the case,” said Schombert, who reflected Adam Reiss’s comments above. “This difference is far behind the errors of observation and has caused great friction in the cosmological community.”

Calculations obtained from NASA’s Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations in 2013 have determined the age of the universe to be 13.77 billion years, which is currently the standard model of Big Bang cosmology. The different constant values ​​of the Hubble Telescope from different techniques generally estimate the age of the universe to be 12 to 14.5 billion years.

“Nothing like ours” – billions of years from the creation of a strange new universe

The new study, which is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, adds a new element to how calculations can be made to achieve the Hubble constant by introducing a purely empirical method, using direct observations, to determine distances to galaxies.

“Our final value is on the high side of various cosmology schools, which signals that our understanding of the physics of the universe is incomplete with the hope of a new physics in the future,” he said.

The image at the top of the page brought scientists from the Institututo de Astrofísica de Canarias to production for almost three years. It is the deepest image of the universe ever taken from space, gaining a large amount of “lost” light around the largest galaxies in the iconic Hubble’s ultra-deep field.

A daily galaxy, Max Goldberg, through the University of Oregon




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